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[TPO阅读] TPO40阅读原文免费下载【包含答案】

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发表于 2016-4-12 10:53:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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Geographic Isolation of Species
Biologist Ernst Mayr defined a species as “an actually or potentially interbreeding population that does not interbreed with other such populations when there is opportunity to do so.”A key event in the origin of many species is the separation of a population with its gene pool (all of the genes in a population at any one time) from other populations of the same species, thereby preventing population interbreeding With its gene pool isolated, a separate population can follow its own evolutionary course. In the formation of many species, the initial isolation of a population seems to have been a geographic barrier This mode of evolving new species is called allopatric speciation.
Many factors can isolate a population geographically.A mountain range may emerge and gradually split a population of organisms that can inhabit only lowland lakes, certain fish populations might become isolated in this way. Similarity, a creeping glacier may gradually divide a population, or a land bridge such as the Isthmus of Panama may form and separate the marine life in the ocean waters on either side.

How formidable must a geographic barrier be to keep populations apart? It depends on the ability of the organisms to move across barriers.Birds and coyotes can easily cross mountains and rivers. The passage of wind-blown tree pollen is also not hindered by such barriers, and the seeds of many plants may be earned back and forth on animals In contrast, small rodents may find a deep canyon or a wide river an effective barrier. For example, the Grand Canyon, in the southwestern United Slates, separate the range of the while-tailed antelope squirrel from that of the closely related Harris’ antelope squirrel. Smaller, with a shorter tail that is white underneath, the white-tailed antelope squirrel inhabits deserts north of the canyon and west of the Colorado River in southern California Hams' antelope squirrel has a more limited range in deserts south of the Grand Canyon.

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